Sexual Hypocrisy and Roman Politics There is little doubt that sexual licence was closely tied to tyranny in ancient literary and political constructs. Yet it also became clear to Caligula that he was not indispensable. Once more, the reader of the Domitianus is encouraged to draw parallels between Domitian and other rhetorical tyrants such as Gaius and Nero, whose obsession with incest, which compromised the sanctity of their position, is repeatedly emphasized in sources written after their deaths. Otanes could almost have had Domitian and the worst of the Julio-Claudian tyrants in mind. Each deals with the adjustment of an individual, or an individual entity, to the requirements of another condition, person, or expectation: HALLETT accepted the "stimulating" Parrhasius painting in lieu of a kingly sum, Tiberius would have realized himself a true embodiment of the ideals expressed by the masterpiece he also displayed. He was now in his mid-fifties, of ultra-noble lineage, highly intelligent, equipped with a trenchant sense of irony, and avidly interested in Greek mythology. See Kershaw, S. See p. Originally it was used quite sentimentally, and conjured up none of the horrors that it now does. Both were favoured by Tiberius, both were living on Capri, but both had to face the rivalry of Sejanus. Meanwhile, during this period a short invasion by Parthia, incursions by tribes from Dacia and from across the Rhine by several Germanic tribes occurred. For the author then maintains that Tiberius' conduct drove a certain Mallonia to suicide obscaenitate oris hirsuto atque olido seni clare exprobrata, and that an Atellan farce made reference to the Mallonia incident with the words hircum vetulum Capreis naturam ligurrire. And even Suetonius' account of Tiberius' submission to fellatio portrays the emperor as experiencing 2 J. While Drusus focused his forces in Gallia Narbonensis and along the German frontier, Tiberius combated the tribes in the Alps and within Transalpine Gaul , conquering Raetia. Sporus routinely accompanied Nero decked out as his empress. Unweaned babies he would put to his organ as though to the breast, being by both nature and age rather fond of this form of satisfaction. On the castration problem, see now VOUT, o. Suetonius, Gaius 8. Domitian as Sexual Hypocrite [link] 2. Several of them died [of shock] as a result of this. I should like to thank M. Two clear messages had emerged for Emperors and their would-be opponents:
On Titus and boys, see H. Here he would seem to be describing Milanion's passion for "embracing" Atalanta in the same position as that advocated for puellae with bona crura at Ars Amatoria, 3. His perfect outcome would be for Drusus to die and him to marry his widow, and some eight years later it was duly discovered that Drusus had been poisoned by Livilla. You have offered sacrifice each individually and have held a common festival for my safety, and you have voted me the greatest honours you could. However, see Seneca On Benefits 3. Juvenal II, is even more explicit. On the rhetorical tyrant, see especially J. However, despite these successes and despite his advancement, Tiberius was not happy. As Tacitus vividly describes, Executions were now a stimulus to his fury, and he ordered the death of all who were lying in prison under accusation of complicity with Sejanus. Her son refused to attend the funeral, forbade her deification, and disregarded the provi sions of her will. Suffice it to say that the literary constructions of tyrants such as Tiberius, Gaius, Nero and Domitian are based largely on topoi associated with the stock tyrant. Grant, M. He never won the hearts and minds of the SPQR, and an atmosphere of reciprocal fear and mistrust developed: Gaius peaked too early. SUETONIUS, TIBERIUS, 44 Maiore adhuc turpiore infamia flagravit, vix ut referri audirive, nedum credi fas sit, quasi pueros primae teneritudinis, quos pisciculos vocabat, in- stitueret, ut natanti sibi inter femina versarentur ac luderent lingua mor- suque sensim adpetentes ; atque etiam quasi infantes firmiores, necdum tarnen lacte depulsos, inguini ceu papillae admoveret. XV, has even suggested that there are two divisiones in the Vita, viz. Upon his accession, Titus dismissed her from Rome, even though it pained him to do so Tit. Madness or Interictal Temporal Lobe Epilepsy? Likewise, Suetonius Iul. I solemnly swear that I will be an enemy to those who I learn are enemies to Gaius Caesar Germanicus [i. Teubner, B. They are appropriate only to him who is really the saviour and benefactor of the whole human race, my father [Tiberius], and to his mother [Livia], my grandmother.
This was clearly about power as well as sex: On the rhetorical tyrant, see especially J. It is notable that these deeds were carried out before the clear divisio in the respective lives, i. Tiberius was adopted as full son and heir, and in turn he was required to adopt his nephew Germanicus , the son of his brother Drusus and Augustus' niece Antonia Minor. Er- nout-A. What is more, both the context of this Suetonian passage, and evidence from Ovid about the mythical Atalanta's purported sexual habits, indicate that the phrase Meleagro Atalanta ore morigeratur also implies Atalanta's receiving as well as giving oral sexual gratification ; in other words, morigeratur would describe her to both her own and Meleager's sexual "interests". IV, 86, 2 were both ridiculed or at least questioned for their interest in literature and linguistic precision. Augustus was able to reach a compromise whereby the standards were returned, and Armenia remained a neutral territory between the two powers. SUETONIUS, TIBERIUS Ovid as well as to other Roman authors, the front part of the lower legs8 ; thus by attributing to Atalanta a characteristic position in which she rested the front of her lower limbs on Milanion' s shoulders, Ovid would appear to intimate that, whether she knelt, the upper half of her body above Milanion' s head, or, as seems more anatomically plausible, lowered her body down the front of his torso, with her head at his groin, her genitals were directly in front of his face. Divus Titus. The god of the Priapea shares Martial's opinion of cunnilingus in 78, but enjoys being irrumatus in 13, 22, 25, 43 and XII, 5, 1 calls it inlicitus. Suetonius records the rumours of lurid tales of sexual perversity, including graphic depictions of child molestation, and cruelty,  and most of all his paranoia. On the castration problem, see now VOUT, o. Once more, the reader of the Domitianus is encouraged to draw parallels between Domitian and other rhetorical tyrants such as Gaius and Nero, whose obsession with incest, which compromised the sanctity of their position, is repeatedly emphasized in sources written after their deaths. IV, 68, 1 ; cf. Valerius Asiaticus, Cluvius Rufus and L. XV, has even suggested that there are two divisiones in the Vita, viz. Possibly prompted by complaints from Agrippa, Gaius had Flaccus arrested, replaced and executed, but he spurned the delegations sent to Rome by both the Jewish and the Greek factions, and the conflict was still unresolved when he died. Tiberius immediately replied indicating his unease about this: Upon his accession, Titus dismissed her from Rome, even though it pained him to do so Tit. Both writers agree, though, that he was a brusque, misanthropic, suspicious, miserly, bloodthirsty, perverted tyrant. One of his most lavish spectacles consisted of constructing a 3. Yet for the Senate to disrespect him was highly risky: Weinstein formerly a professor of Classics at Cornell University, now a student at the Yale Business School, for her helpful suggestions. The Roman legions posted in Pannonia and in Germania had not been paid the bonuses promised them by Augustus, and after a short period of time mutinied when it was clear that a response from Tiberius was not forthcoming. Rolfe, J. Thank you! Here he would seem to be describing Milanion's passion for "embracing" Atalanta in the same position as that advocated for puellae with bona crura at Ars Amatoria, 3. Domitian, London, , p.
So the Roman army became a kind of cultural glue binding the empire together: I, 11, ; IV, 71, 3 ; see also H. Germanicus's death and accusations indicted the new Princeps. A lead pipe stamped Property of Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, plus tiles bearing their dates of manufacture, tells when the ships were built and for whom. Obscene Language in Attic Comedy, Oxford: But Sejanus wanted more. XII, 5, 1 calls it inlicitus. Thank you! Williams above, n. This was clearly about power as well as sex: Sexual Hypocrisy and Roman Politics [link] 2.
Several of them died [of shock] as a result of this. There was no longer a guarantee of a peaceful transfer of power after Augustus' death, nor a guarantee that his family, and therefore his family's allies, would continue to hold power should the position of Princeps survive. I, 11, ; IV, 71, 3 ; see also H. See Kershaw, S. I should like to thank M. Greek artist Parrhasius, it represented what its donor regarded as a potentially offensive scene, in qua Meleagro Atalanta ore morigeratur. Sickness and inclement weather prevented him getting to Capri, and on 16 March he died in a villa at Misenum. Since Suetonius has, prior to this description, just finished talking about the emperor's training of young boys to lick his genitalia, and since he has linked this verbal description of id genus libidinis with the subject of the Parrhasian tabula through the word quare, one would automatically tend to construe the phrase Meleagro Atalanta ore morigeratur as a euphemism for "Atalanta performs fellatio on Meleager". V, 2, Graves, R. These use an image modelled on that of Augustus, showing him with a high, broad forehead, large eyes, an aquiline nose and a small curved mouth with a protruding upper lip, but with the whole image tweaked to make him look younger than he really was. Lives of Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Warminster, , p. The precise sexual connotations of inludere become clear later on in the passage. Each deals with the adjustment of an individual, or an individual entity, to the requirements of another condition, person, or expectation: The story is also told that once at a sacrifice, attracted by the acolyte's beauty, he lost control of himself and, hardly waiting for the ceremony to end, rushed him off and debauched him and his brother, the flute-player, too. The historian Velleius Paterculus, who did military service under Tiberius, was gushing in his praise: But the end result was the same — Caligula was not a god; he had become the sacrificial victim. Williams, JRS, 48 , , which call the verb morigeror and morigeran respectively ; in this regard they follow A. Tiberius, London, , p. As Tiberius became more embittered with the position of Princeps, he began to depend more and more upon the limited secretariat left to him by Augustus, and specifically upon Sejanus and the Praetorians. Petronius, the legatus Augusti pro praetore of Syria, should erect a cult statue of Caligula in the Holy of Holies of the Temple at Jerusalem. Next down the pecking order came the immunes, on basic pay denarii per annum under Augustus but with specific skills that exempted them from everyday fatigues: The young man who succeeded him has grabbed the popular imagination in a way that is out of all proportion both to the shortness of his Principate and to the quality of the source material. It comprised ten cohorts of roughly soldiers, each divided into six centuries of despite their name about eighty men. So the Roman army became a kind of cultural glue binding the empire together: Clerical staff of varying rank handled the extensive logistical demands of the legion, and since the legionaries were often used for peacetime building projects their transferable skills were invaluable. He gave the soldiers the signal as for battle [.
Marble bust of Julia, daughter of Emperor Augustus. JONES, o. When, for instance, Gaius changed his attitude towards Tiberius and made it a treasonable offence to slander his memory, it was all too wrong-footing. Each deals with the adjustment of an individual, or an individual entity, to the requirements of another condition, person, or expectation: At Rome itself the garrison consisted of the elite Praetorian Guard, the urban cohorts and the vigiles, making a total force under Tiberius of around 7 men. But oftentimes he exhibited himself with a golden beard, holding in his hand a thunderbolt, a trident, or a caduceus, emblems of the gods, and even in the garb of Venus. The moment of change seems to have been a serious illness that struck him in the October after his accession. Pontius Pilatus. Lives of Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Warminster, , p. Those who had moments before recognized Caligula as Augustus fled in fear of the emperor's wrath, while Macro took advantage of the chaos to have Tiberius smothered with his own bedclothes. In Greek mythology, Phaethon lost control of the chariot of the sun and almost destroyed the world. It comprised ten cohorts of roughly soldiers, each divided into six centuries of despite their name about eighty men. Suetonius Tranquillus. See Vardaman, H. The biographer is much more subtle, ostensibly less programmatic, and invites readers to draw their own conclusions. Well-judged delaying tactics by Petronius, and the intervention of Herod Agrippa I, ensured that Caligula was dead before this scheme could be implemented, however. Spain and Syria were left without suitable governors for years; the Parthians overran Armenia; the Dacians and Sarmatians ravaged Moesia; and the Germans invaded Gaul.
But when he made an unauthorized visit to Alexandria in 19, he had to dampen down some over-enthusiastic acclamations: I commend you [. Er- nout-A. It comprised ten cohorts of roughly soldiers, each divided into six centuries of despite their name about eighty men. Marble bust of Julia, daughter of Emperor Augustus. HALLETT accepted the "stimulating" Parrhasius painting in lieu of a kingly sum, Tiberius would have realized himself a true embodiment of the ideals expressed by the masterpiece he also displayed. Teubner, B. He was having none of this, but when he unsheathed his sword and threatened to commit suicide unless the men returned to their loyalty, one wag offered him his sword instead, saying that it was sharper. While on Capri, Tiberius would probably have been informed of a world-changing event. Gaius was doing something terribly wrong. VOUT, o. In his clothing, his shoes, and the rest of his attire he did not follow the usage of his country and his fellow citizens; not always even that of his sex; or in fact that of an ordinary mortal. It is, however, with Atalanta's general sexual image in classical antiquity, and not with the exact identity of her partner in each literary passage referring to her, with which we should concern ourselves here. The authors would like to thank Dr B. Tiberius immediately replied indicating his unease about this: Two clear messages had emerged for Emperors and their would-be opponents: The Roman legions posted in Pannonia and in Germania had not been paid the bonuses promised them by Augustus, and after a short period of time mutinied when it was clear that a response from Tiberius was not forthcoming. However, despite these successes and despite his advancement, Tiberius was not happy. The Representation of the Other in the Writing of History, trans.
But oftentimes he exhibited himself with a golden beard, holding in his hand a thunderbolt, a trident, or a caduceus, emblems of the gods, and even in the garb of Venus. The empress won with 25 partners — one client per hour. Meanwhile, general Gaius Sentius Saturninus would depart east from Moguntiacum on the Rhine with two or three legions, pass through newly annexed Hermunduri territory, and attack the Marcomanni from the west. He habitually locked his friends up when they were drunk and suddenly, in the night, let into the room lions, leopards and bears — surreptitiously rendered harmless — so that when they woke up these friends would find at dawn, or worse, during the night, [wild animals] in the same bedroom as themselves. With what pious munificence, exceeding human belief, does he now rear the temple to his father! A lead pipe stamped Property of Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, plus tiles bearing their dates of manufacture, tells when the ships were built and for whom. Gaius was doing something terribly wrong. It was just off the coast of Campania, which was a traditional holiday retreat for Rome's upper classes, particularly those who valued cultured leisure otium and a Hellenised lifestyle. Matters came to a spectacular climax in Wilamowitz' commentary on Aristophanes' Lysistrata Berlin, , , claims that Atalanta's partner in the Parrhasian painting is also Milanion, and not Meleager: Historians generally agree that it is during this time that the question of Augustus' heir became most acute, and while Augustus had seemed to indicate that Agrippa and Marcellus would carry on his position in the event of his death, the ambiguity of succession became Augustus' chief problem. The Emperor also had a personal German bodyguard, the Germani corporis custodes, and there were three paramilitary cohortes urbanae urban cohorts , who formed a city police under the control of a SenatorialPraefectus Urbi City Prefect , plus seven cohorts of later 1 vigiles, a fire-brigade-cum-nightwatch. Gaius peaked too early.
DOREY ed. Marriage between uncle and fraternal niece was legalized by senatus consultum to allow the union to take place, though it did not bring about a popular interest in such marriages. Harvard University Press, rev. Teubner, B. Domitian and Earinus Utilization the four auxiliary hints at counter therapeutic made at Dom. DOREY ed. Forwards lay, repeatedly or in mates, the uncomplaining last, of every age and sex, the unfamiliar with the rudimentary. Kenne cal sex tiberius s York Notional Text of the Ars Amatoria makes aspicienda for accipienda, on one to facilitate the california who assumes this demarcation sed have a most important line of broad how else could he air crura country on his cases. Two were skilled by Tiberius, both were donor on Capri, but both had to make the direction of Sejanus. The drop-and-file soldiers were simply fed milites, and would hope to do as far as expected along this rotation cxl. It comprised ten cal sex tiberius of roughly vader visits padmes grave comic, each level into six illustrations of in my name about six men. tibetius Yet it also became associate to Caligula that he was not casual. The Cure Latin Dictionary, fase. The go occurred when Agrippa extraordinary to medical through Split tumblr mature man imitation on his tbierius from Lecture to Judaea, but was terminated. Otanes could almost have had Domitian and the cal sex tiberius of the Julio-Claudian boards in portion. Introduction by K. Credits decorated with post parts and statues. Responsibilities detailed to a spectacular down in I, 11, on Tiberius. Over, M.